Bone Diseases

Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis In this condition, our bone mass decreases [bones do not get optimal amounts of calcium and other minerals] and the bone structure deteriorates. A reduced bone mass weakens the bones such that they may break, or can fracture easily with a fall or impact. Unfortunately, there are no prior signs or symptoms of this condition and often a fateful event leads to its discovery. Good news: osteoporosis can be prevented, diagnosed and treated.

Arthritis

Arthritis When one or more joints get inflamed, it is called arthritis. A number of bone diseases come under the umbrella of arthritis: autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid and soriatic arthritis; septic arthritis [caused by infection in the joints]; and osteoarthritis [in which joints degenerate].

Fibromyalgia

Fibromyalgia This a chronic illness with symptoms of pain and fatigue from head to toe, which is diagnosed as a syndrome. It is sometimes categorised as primary or secondary. There is no cure yet for fibromyalgia, but with proper treatment patients can lead a normal life.

Plantar fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis The inflammation of the plantar fascia [thick band of tissue covering the bones on the bottom of the foot], causing heel pain and difficulty to walk is called 'plantar fasciitis'. The disorder is common in people who use their feet for prolonged periods like runners or dancers.

Osteogenesis imperfecta

Osteogenesis imperfecta Also known as the brittle-bone disease, in this disorder, due to genetic defects the body is unable to make strong bones. Hence, the bones break easily and without a cause.

Avascular necrosis

Avascular necrosis In this condition, a diminished blood supply leads to bone deterioration. It usually affects the upper part of the leg bone that attaches into your hip, ankle, shoulder and elbow.

Fibrous dysplasia

Fibrous dysplasia In this chronic condition, some cells begin to form an abnormal type of fibrous bone. Gradually, this fibrous bone weakens the area of the bone, causing pain. It can even fracture the bone or lead to further deformity.

Paget's disease

Paget disease Found usually in people above 40 years of age, this is a chronic disease of the skeleton often partially or fully affecting one or many bones. It usually affects the spine, pelvis, long bones of the limbs, and skull.

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Treatment Options

Usually, doctors treat a bone condition with medication, balanced food, exercise and yoga. If all else fails, they suggest surgery. Some common surgical procedures include-

[A] Osteotomy:

A procedure to reduce stress on the bone by reshaping it

[B] Bone grafting:

The process of transplanting a healthy bone from another part of the body to the affected area.

[C] Unicompartmental knee resurfacing and hip resurfacing:

Advanced joint preservation techniques, performed in cases where the damage is restricted so that the rest of the joint can be preserved.

[D] Hip/knee replacement:

Complex surgery in which the entire damaged joint is replaced with a new one. Advances in medical science have given way to computer-assisted, less invasive surgical methods.

[E] Core decompression:

A procedure to remove the inner layer of bone to reduce pressure and allow for increased blood flow, and slow or stop bone and/or joint destruction.

Prevention is better

Lack of exercise and a proper diet, aggravates ageing and makes the body more prone to diseases.

Avoiding falls
  • Keep a dim light on at night so that you are able to see in the dark.
  • Sit in bed for a minute and move your legs, before getting out of bed to ease stiffness.
  • Wear your spectacles for you to see things clearly.
  • Keep the passage to the bathroom clear of things that could trip you. Often, this is the most common cause of fall.
  • Wipe the bathroom dry before going to bed.
  • Install a railing in bathroom to hold.
  • Use a walker or walking stick if you have imbalance due to any reason.
  • Use a urine bottle or condom drain at night [for male members] to pass urine than go to the bathroom.

BONE DISEASES TREATMENT

Treatment options may vary, and often depend on the patient's age, overall health, extent of the disease, the patient's ability to tolerate treatments, the expected progression of the disease, and the patient's preference. Treatments may include surgical procedures to protect the bones from damage, deformity, or alignment issues, medications, physical therapy, joint replacement, wheelchair confinement, mobility assistance devices, splinting, bracing, rodding (the placement of rods alongside or even in the bone to allow for straight growth), core decompression (a procedure where the inner layer of the bone is removed), bone grafts (transplantation of healthy bone to assist the growth of unhealthy bone), chemotherapy, radiation, amputation when no other alternative is available, and fracture care.

body bone

Heart failure

Bone cancer

Osteoarthritis

Fractures and deformities

Pelvis. Paget's disease of bone in the pelvis can cause hip pain.
Skull. An overgrowth of bone in the skull can cause hearing loss or headaches.
Spine. If your spine is affected, nerve roots can become compressed. This can cause pain, tingling and numbness in an arm or leg.
Leg. As the bones weaken, they may bend - causing you to become bowlegged. Enlarged and misshapen bones in your legs can put extra stress on nearby joints, which may cause osteoarthritis in your knee or hip.